Infinitum Solar

Goverment Policies

To establish an energy portfolio that is sustainable for future growth, state and federal governments of other countries have enacted various energy policies. This will become increasingly important as more countries develop and industrialize. Energy demand is expected to continue growing exponentially and new technologies must be available to help meet the demand. These policies are primarily aimed at reducing dependency on fossil fuel energy, mandating efficient energy use, and encouraging the development of renewable energy resources. The primary ways in which federal, state, and local governments encourage renewable energy, including photovoltaics, is through incentives and quotas. INCENTIVES: Incentives programs include grants, rebates, renewable energy credits, low-interest or no-interest loans, sales and property tax exemptions, income tax credits or deductions for individuals and corporations, and cash payments based on energy production. Federal programs are available throughout the United States, while state programs vary widely. Even some utilities offer incentives programs in their areas. Online databases of various incentive programs help consumers research available programs for their area.   QUOTAS: The quota mechanism is a state policy and is typically called a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). An RPS places an obligation on either the state utility or the consumers to source a specified fraction of their electricity from renewable energy sources by a certain deadline. Utilities that fail to meet their obligations are required to pay a penalty fee for each unit of electricity short of the goal. This quota mechanism expands the market for renewable energy systems, which drives competition and is expected to lower costs to the consumer.   It’s worth noting that several states have expanded their policies to incorporate additional resources in recent years. There is now a distinction between a “Renewable Portfolio Standard” (RPS) and what some states have labeled as a “Clean Energy Standard” (CES). The difference between a RPS and a CES comes down to how a particular state defines what is a “renewable” versus a “clean” source of energy. Clean energy typically refers to sources of energy that have zero carbon emissions. Some of those “clean” sources may not be considered “renewable.” For instance, under some CES policies, nuclear energy is considered a “clean” energy source because it is carbon-free; it is not widely considered “renewable,” however. Conversely, biomass, which is an eligible resource under many state RPS policies, is considered “renewable” despite producing carbon emissions. Iowa was the first state to establish an RPS; since then, more than half of states have established renewable energy targets. Thirty states, Washington, D.C., and two territories have active renewable or clean energy requirements, while an additional three states and one territory have set voluntary renewable energy goals. RPS legislation has seen two opposing trends in recent years. On one hand, many states with RPS targets are expanding or renewing those goals. Since 2018, 15 states, two territories, and Washington, D.C., have passed legislation to increase or expand their renewable or clean energy targets. On the other hand, seven states and one territory have allowed their RPS targets to expire; an additional four states have RPS targets that expire in 2021. Most jurisdictions with a current or recently updated RPS have set targets of at least 40%. However, recent RPS legislation has seen a push toward 100% clean or renewable energy requirements. To date, 10 states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and Guam have set 100% clean or renewable portfolio requirements with deadlines ranging between 2030 and 2050. An additional three states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands, have goals of 50% or greater. State renewable portfolio standard policies vary widely on several elements including RPS targets, the entities they include, the resources eligible to meet requirements and cost caps. In many states, standards are measured by the percentage of retail electric sales. Iowa and Texas, however, require specific amounts of renewable energy capacity rather than percentages and Kansas requires a percentage of peak demand. RPS requirements can apply only to investor-owned utilities (IOUs), although many states also include municipalities and electric cooperatives (Munis and Co-ops), sometimes with a lower target. Utilities that are subject to these mandates must obtain renewable energy credits or certificates (RECs)—which represent the environmental benefits of one megawatt-hour of renewable energy generation. RECs are created when renewable energy is sent out to the grid and are used to verify that utilities are meeting their targets. According to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 20 states and Washington, D.C., have cost caps in their RPS policies to limit increases to a certain percentage of ratepayers’ bills. One state caps RPS gross procurement costs. To promote a diversified resource mix and encourage deployment of certain technologies, states have established carve-outs and renewable energy credit multipliers within their RPSs for specific energy technologies, such as offshore wind or rooftop solar. Carve-outs require a certain percentage of the overall renewable energy requirement to be met with a specific technology, while credit multipliers award additional renewable energy credits for electricity produced by certain technologies. At least 21 states and Washington, D.C., have credit multipliers, carve-outs, or both for certain energy technologies in their RPS policies. Florida’s new goals call on utilities to move toward 40 percent clean energy by 2030, 63 percent by 2035, 82 percent by 2040 and 100 percent by 2050. The goals are the same as those proposed by the young Floridians in their petition for rulemaking.

Pv Industry

A diversity of knowledge, skills, and abilities are required to design, install, and commission PV Systems. The process involves several qualified individuals and organizations, each with an important role in ensuring the safe, reliable, and long-term performance of the PV Power System. In 1992, the US had 40% of the world installed PV capacity, the largest share held by any country. By 2009, PV installation in the US had grown to more than 38 times the 1992 level but accounted for only 7% of the worlds installed PV capacity. Some other countries have been installing PV Systems at a much faster rate than United States. Currently, the global PV industry is dominated by Japan and Europe, especially Germany. MANUFACTURERS There are hundreds of PV cell and module manufacturers in the world, located in almost every industrialized country. Electrical equipment manufacturers design, develop, and fabricate the Balance Of System (BOS) components. A BOS component is an electrical or structural component, aside from a major component, that is required to complete a PV System. BOS components include the conductors, connectors, switchgear, fuses, and hardware that connect, support or interface between the primary devices such as the array, inverter, and battery system. INSTALLERS Installers have an important role in ensuring quality PV installations. Installers should exhibit quality electrical craftsmanship, and because of the unique aspect of the equipment and interfacing of PV technology, they should be qualified specifically for installing PV Systems. All PV System Installers should meet the following criteria: 1. Complies with applicable buildings and electrical codes and standards. 2. Applies for permits and approvals from local building and utility authorities as required. 3. Knows his or her capabilities and limitations, and seeks outside expertise as required. 4. Selects and sizes systems and equipment to meet performance expectations. 5. Recommends well-engineered, quality components. 6. Ensures equipment is properly labeled and safety hazards are identified. 7. Locates and orients array to maximize performance and accessibility. 8. Mounts array with strong, weather-sealed attachments. 9. Uses accepted utility-interconnection practices and obtains utility approvals as required. 10. Completes work in a timely manner while practicing safe and orderly work habits. 11. Employs safe and accepted methods in the installation and use of PV equipment. 12. Completes inspections, commissioning, and acceptance tests. 13. Provides owner/operator with appropriate documentation, instructions, and training. 14. Provides follow-up service for completed work as required. An experienced installer also has considerable design knowledge and familiarity with many types of PV Systems and components and can diagnose and troubleshoot even complex systems effectively. Installers are perhaps the most visible members of the PV Industry to the consumers, making it vital that installers be professional and qualified individuals. Choose wisely, in INFINITUM SOLAR WE KNOW HOW TO HELP YOU.

PV Applications

The earliest applications of PV Systems were in situations where connections to the utility grid were unavailable, or cost prohibited. As PV efficiency has continued to improve and costs have fallen in recent years, more potential applications for PV technology have emerged. Greater demand and increasing production have accelerated the trend toward cost-effectiveness in a wide range of applications. Today, PV Systems can be used in almost any application where electricity is needed and can support DC loads, or both. PV Systems may be as simple as a PV module directly connected to a load with no other components, or as complex as a utility-interconnected system with multiple power sources. SPACE APPLICATIONS Satellites were the first practical applications of PV technology and did much to increase the public´s knowledge of PV Systems. PORTABLE APPLICATIONS Portable PV Systems power mobile loads such as vehicles, temporary sign and lightning and handheld devices. REMOTE APPLICATIONS Remote PV Systems power loads that are permanently fixed but too distant to be connected to the utility power grid. Off-grid residences, lighting, communications, signage and signals, remote monitoring, water pumping. UTILITY-INTERACTIVE APPLICATIONS Systems that are connected to the utility grid and use PV energy as a supplemental source of power offer the greatest flexibility in possible system configuration. PV Systems can be used to provide supplemental power to any utility-connected building or structure, including residences, commercial, building, factories, and institutions. These applications are all similar, except that the system varies in size. Array mounting systems may also vary because of the difference in construction methods and design. So, what are you waiting for to be part of this great transition? If you are thinking that PV Systems are the future, then you are already late. ANDREA PERNIA REYES MASTER IN RENEWABLE ENERGIES AND ENERGY PROJECTS

Photovoltaics, a great deal!

Photovoltaics (PV) is a solar energy technology that uses the unique properties of certain semiconductors to directly convert Solar Radiation into electricity. A PV System is an electrical system, consisting of a PV module array and other electrical components needed to convert solar energy into electricity usable by loads. These components can be arranged in many ways to design PV Systems for different situations, but the most common configuration is a utility-connected system, which is found on commercial and residential buildings. These PV Systems may or may not include battery storage and the array is usually mounted on rooftop or nearby on the ground. A load is a piece of equipment that consumes electricity. Examples of loads include lights, pumps, heaters, motors, and electronics. ADVANTAGES PV Systems may save the consumer a great deal of money. Benefits of PV Systems add value beyond the potential financial savings. Many PV Systems owners place a high importance on producing clean “green” energy. Photovoltaics is an environmental friendly technology that produces energy with no noise or pollution. Also, PV Systems are very flexible and can be adapted to many different applications. The module nature of PV arrays and other components make systems easy to expand to increased capacity. Since there are no moving parts, PV Systems are extremely reliable and last a long time with minimal maintenance. PV Systems also offer energy independence and can also be used to hedge against future energy rates increases.   DISADVANTAGES There are, however, some disadvantages to PV Systems that have somewhat limited their use. Currently, the most significant issue is the initial cost of a PV System, that is the main reason why you need to take advantage of the benefit that is being promoted by the Federal Government, of Zero Down payment and Zero Installation costs. FUNDING IS NOT GONNA LAST FOREVER! The available of solar radiation resource at a particular location determines the feasibility of producing appreciable amounts of power. Take advantage of living in The Sunshine State. There is also a lack of knowledge among some groups and in some areas about the potential of solar energy systems, particularly photovoltaics. Consumers may not know what type of systems available and what type of PV Systems they need. It may be difficult to find a qualified installer in their area, or their installation may be hindered by limited knowledge of PV Systems and their requirements among the local utilities and building codes. The industry is involved in educating the public and related organizations about Solar Energy, through publicity, training, programs, cooperative projects, legislations, incentives, and other activities. COME, JOIN US, BECOME A PV SYSTEM INSTALLER, LEARN HOW TO EDUCATE OTHER PERSONS AND BE PART OF OUR TEAM. WE ARE HERE TO LEAD YOU IN THIS PATH.   ANDREA PERNIA Master in Renewable Energies and Energy Projects.